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Estimating heat capacity and heat content of rocks

Estimating heat capacity and heat content of rocks

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Published by U.S. Geological Survey in [Reston, VA] .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Rocks -- Thermal properties

  • Edition Notes

    Statementby E.C. Robertson and B.S. Hemingway
    SeriesOpen-file report -- 95-622, U.S. Geological Survey open-file report -- 95-622
    ContributionsHemingway, Bruce S, Geological Survey (U.S.)
    The Physical Object
    FormatMicroform
    Pagination38 leaves
    Number of Pages38
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL13619606M
    OCLC/WorldCa36533065

    The specific heat value can have a varying range for different substances depending on the extent to which the object absorbs heat. The SI unit of specific heat is Joule per Kelvin and kilogram (J / K kg). Hence, the specific heat formula is given by. Specific Heat = Quantity of heat needed to raise/ (Mass of the substance × Change in temperature). In thermodynamics, the specific heat capacity (symbol c p) of a substance is the heat capacity of a sample of the substance divided by the mass of the sample. Informally, it is the amount of energy that must be added, in the form of heat, to one unit of mass of the substance in order to cause an increase of one unit in SI unit of specific heat is joule per kelvin and kilogram.


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Estimating heat capacity and heat content of rocks Download PDF EPUB FB2

Estimating the heat capacity and heat content of rocks Modifications of the Neumann-Kopp rule (Swalin, ) to estimate heat capacities have been cited in several studies (Somerton, and ; Wechsler and Glaser, ; and Lindroth and Krawza, ).

The rule states that the heat capacity Cited by: 8. Measurements were made on powders of the rocks in the temperature range of to about K. Our measured heat-capacity values for rocks and other measurements Estimating heat capacity and heat content of rocks book heat capacity or heat content of rocks found in the literature have been compared with estimated rock heat capacities calculated from the summation of heat capacities of both minerals and oxide components.

Heat contents may be more easily calculated based on Kopp's Law of additive properties. This chapter discusses the experimental measurements, calculated heat capacities, heat capacity of fluid saturated rocks, generalized calculation of heat capacities, and heat capacity of shales.

Heat contents of rock samples may be measured by the use of a Bunsen-type calorimeter, which is. Specific heat capacity data for constituent materials from NIST [14] (AlN and Mo); Liu, et al.

[15] (Mo 2 C); and Hurst, et al. [16] (YAlO 3, using Kopp's Law) were used to calculate the. The chosen specific heat capacity (Table 5) has been set to be constant for each layer of the 3-D model during the 3-D thermal modelling, representing the temperature-dependent average values of Author: Christoph Clauser.

Specific heat of rock 71 Characteristic thickness of stationary fluid layer for estimating heat transfer coeffients 95 Radioactive heat generation in rocks 97 water content, and quartz, olivine, pyroxene, and clay content on conductivities of most felsic and mafic rocks are shown.

Data for other less-common igneous rocks are listed. Approximation Methods of Estimating Heat Capacity Although direct experimental measurement is the primary source of heat capacity values, theoretical calcu-lations based upon the detailed properties of atoms, molecules, or crystals contribute reliable heat capacity values in.

It depends on several factors: (1) chemical composition of the rock (i.e., mineral content), (2) fluid content (type and degree of saturation of the pore space); the presence of water increases the thermal conductivity (i.e., enhances the flow of heat), (3) pressure (a high pressure increases the thermal conductivity by closing cracks which inhibit heat flow), (4) temperature, and (5) isotropy and homogeneity of the rock.

surface heat capacity measurements on finely divided powders with large surface – to – volume ratio. • Difference between this and heat capacity of large crystallites of the same material yield the surface heat capacity. Theoretical Estimation of Surface Heat Capacity • Bulk heat capacities: C P varies in a regular fashion with temperature.

Heat lost Δ Q = J the Heat capacity formula is given by Q = mc ΔT c= / c= 15 J/ o C. Example 2 Determine the heat capacity of J of heat is used to heat the iron rod of mass 10 Kg from 20 o C to 40 o C.

Solution: Given parameters are Mass m = 10 Kg, Temperature difference Δ T = 20 o C, Heat lost ΔQ = J The Heat capacity formula is given by Q = mc ΔT c= / If the heat capacity is constant, we arrive at: Δ9 lnheat capacity follows the same substance-dependent form as before, we can again substitute and integrate to get: Δ9" (#lnheat capacity case: Δ9 "-#ln & ⁄.

% 2. Estimate the heat capacities of metals using a model based on degrees of freedom. In the chapter on temperature and heat, we defined the specific heat capacity with the equation Q = m c Δ T, or c = (1 / m) Q / Δ T.

However, the properties of an ideal gas depend directly on the number of moles in a sample, so here we define specific heat capacity in terms of the number of moles, not the mass. The average difference between the calculated and experimental heat capacity is − kJkg −1 K −1 with a standard deviation of kJkg −1 K −1.

The model was validated by comparing published and calculated heat capacities for 13 systems of more than one solute in. Specific heat capacity c. Physical property defining the amount of sensible heat that can be stored in or extracted from a unit mass of rock per unit temperature increase or decrease, respectively.

Isobaric and isochoric specific heat capacities are defined at constant pressure and volume, respectively; dimension: J kg −1 K − Thermal capacity (also: volumetric heat capacity) ρ c. Heat pumps for heating should be de-rated from nameplate capacity, I think, by about 40%, then that value added to auxiliary heat output to get an idea of total capacity.

Many installers recommend that enough auxiliary heat capacity be provided to keep you warm even if the heat. The ability to retain heat is a function of the stone's specific heat capacity and density.

Another factor in choosing stone could be how quickly the stone transfers heat, called thermal conductivity. Put the stone's capacity to store heat together with thermal conductivity to find the stone that absorbs heat the best, and does it the quickest. Abstract. Heat capacities of the rocks within a sedimentary basin can significantly influence geothermal gradients if sedimentation or erosion is rapid.

This paper provides data on specific heat capacities of minerals and nonporous rocks at 20°C, derives equations for calculating specific heat capacities of minerals and nonporous rocks at temperatures between 0°C and °C, and shows that pressure effects on heat.

In contrast, water has a heat capacity of Joules per kg per °K, so you’d need twice as much energy to change its temperature by the same amount as the rock. The cooling history of two identical cubes — one consisting of air, the other of water, at the same starting temperature ( °K, which is 20 °C).

In the below heat calculator, enter the values for specific heat, mass and change in temperature and click calculate. Calculator. Formula. Here is a simple Heat capacity calculator to calculate the heat generated, measured in Joules, using the values of specific heat, mass and change in temperature.

The heat capacity is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature by 1 degree. heat capacity, density, and thermal diffusivity were determined experimentally in the laboratory. Theoretical multi-component models and the data on mineral composition were used for estimating thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity was determined also indirectly using measured conductivity, specific heat capacity and density.

The specific heat capacity (C p, P) was calculated according to Eq. from the heat capacity of the reference material (C p, R), considering the sample mass (m p in [g]) and the mass of the reference (m R). (1) C p, P = C p, R m R Δ T P m P Δ T R.

The thermal diffusivity (α) [mm 2 /s] was measured using a NETZSCH LFA Laser flash device. An area of the sample was heated rapidly.

To calculate heat capacity, use the formula: heat capacity = E / T, where E is the amount of heat energy supplied and T is the change in temperature. For example, if it takes 2, Joules of energy to heat up a block 5 degrees Celsius, the formula would look like: heat capacity Views: K.

Learning Objective: Use changes in temperature to calculate heat flow, and heat capacity. Topics: heat, specific heat capacity, temperature change.

This equation simply states that the change in heat Q of a closed system (a liquid, gas or solid material) is equal to the mass m of the sample times the temperature change ΔT times a parameter C called specific heat capacity, or just specific heat.

The higher the value of C, the more heat a system can absorb while maintaining the same temperature increase. The change in temperature (Δ T) is. () Δ T = q C. where q is the amount of heat (in joules), C is the heat capacity (in joules per degree Celsius), and Δ T is T f i n a l − T i n i t i a l (in degrees Celsius).

Note that Δ T is always written as the final temperature minus the initial temperature. From this App you can learn: Define, discuss and distinguish the terms heat and temperature.

Discuss, explore and examine different types of thermometers and temperature scales used to measure the temperature. Illustrate Joule's experiment to prove that heat is a form of energy. Define and explore the concept of specific heat and its relevance to everyday science.

Calculate the amount of heat. We now introduce two concepts useful in describing heat flow and temperature change. The heat capacity (C) of a body of matter is the quantity of heat (q) it absorbs or releases when it experiences a temperature change (ΔT) of 1 degree Celsius (or equivalently, 1 kelvin) C = q ΔT.

Heat capacity is determined by both the type and amount of substance that absorbs or releases heat. Heat transfer takes place through conduction, convection and radiation. This easy-to-use series of calculators will quickly let you calculate basic heat transfer rates as well as rates for both conduction and convection.

Calculate free convection by entering surface area, heat transfer coefficient and surface and fluid temperatures. It derives an equation for estimating specific heat capacity of any mineral or nonporous rock as a function of density.

Finally, it shows how to calculate the specific heat capacity of any mixture of solid materials. A companion paper discusses specific heat capacities of the fluids in pore spaces of rocks and of fluid-filled porous rocks.

Answer to Calculate the useful heat content per km2 of dry rock granite to a depth of 8 km, when the geothermal gradient is 18 K/ Skip Navigation. Chegg home. Books. Study. Calculate the initial heat content per km2 of an aquifer with the following characteristics • Thickness km • Depth km • Porosity 6 % • Temperature gradient 43 K/km • Water density kg/m3 and specific heat capacity J/(kg K) • Undersediment kg/m3 and specific heat capacity J/(kg K) subject to the following requirements • minimum useable temperature 37 °C.

This quantity is known as the specific heat capacity (or simply, the specific heat), which is the heat capacity per unit mass of a material. Experiments show that the transferred heat depends on three factors: (1) The change in temperature, (2) the mass of the system, and (3) the substance and phase of.

No headers. The material in this chapter doubtless has countless applications, most of which I am unaware of, in meteorology. Two simple topics are easy to mention, namely the scale height in an isothermal atmosphere, dealt with in this section, and the adiabatic lapse rate dealt with in the next section.

Let us imagine a column of air of cross-sectional area A in an isothermal atmosphere. Table 1: Summary of values of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of various soils Soil Type Water Content (%) Bulk Density (Mg/m3) Dry Density (Mg/m3) Thermal Conductivity (W/m K) Specific Heat Capacity (J/kg K) BH C13 88.

Calculate specific heat as c = Q / (mΔT). In our example, it will be equal to c =J / (5 kg * -3 K) = 4, J/(kgK). This is the typical heat capacity of water.

If you have problems with the units, feel free to use our temperature conversion or weight conversion calculators. Heat transfer in fractured rocks is a critical phenomenon that drives the performance of both enhanced geothermal systems (wherein the heat transferred from hot dry rocks warms water circulating in fractures) [Willis-Richards et al., ; Gelet et al., ] and.

Specific Heat Capacity is the amount of energy required by a single unit of a substance to change its temperature by one unit. When you supply energy to a solid, liquid or gas, its temperature changes. This energy is known as the Specific Heat Capacity of the substance and is denoted by ‘C’.

This chemistry tutorial covers the difference between heat capacity and specific heat and includes several examples of how to find specific heat and how to u. Values of specific heat must generally be looked up in tables, because there is no simple way to calculate them.

In general, the specific heat also depends on the temperature. Table 1 lists representative values of specific heat for various substances.

Except for gases, the temperature and volume dependence of the specific heat of most. Example (not in book) a.) Calculate the molar heat capacity of quartz (SiO2), if cs ofSiO2 = J/K/g b) Calculate the amount of heat required to raise Kg of rock (quartz) by 15°C. Solution a) Find the molar mass of quartz and Use relationship cp= Mcs K mol J K g J mol g cp Mcs • = •.

Examining the work done during an adiabatic process, you can say Q = 0, so. equals –W. The minus sign is in front of the W because the energy to do the work comes from the system itself, so doing work results in a lower internal energy.

Because the internal energy of an ideal gas is U = (3/2)nRT, the work done is the following.• Heating capacity (cont.): 2) Package Heat Pumps-heat is generated by refrigeration compressors reversing valve changes function of evaporator and condenser heat output is a function of OSA temperature COP (Coefficient Of Performance) auxiliary electric heaters needed for .Pots, pans, and specific heat.

The specific heat of aluminium is J kg −1 K −1, copper J kg −1 K −1, iron (Fe) J kg −1 K −1. This means that less heat is required to heat a copper cooking pan than a steel or aluminium one of equal mass, which means it will take less time to heat .